The Eiffel Tower in Paris, illuminated in green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Hall) From November 2020, 194 states and the European Union signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    All 197 UNFCCC members have signed or joined. Under the agreement, the United States would have to wait until one month after its intention to reintegrate into its country before formally joining, although it would lose some of the privileges of the short time the country left the agreement; they could not, for example, attend important meetings until they were members.  President Trump initially announced his intention to withdraw from the agreement in the summer of 2017, shortly after taking office. At the time, he said, “From today, the United States will cease all implementation of the agreement,” including the federal policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and U.S. contributions to the International Climate Fund for poor nations. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making “efforts” to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius.
No country was able to denounce the withdrawal of the agreement before the expiry of a three-year period from the date of ratification. Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to fulfil commitments that are strictly the other` and there was concern that differences of opinion on each Member State`s share of the EU reduction target and the British vote to leave the EU would delay the Paris Pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Democratic candidate Joe Biden said that if elected president, he would reinstate the Paris Agreement at the beginning of his presidency.